A valvuloplasty is a procedure to repair a heart valve with a narrowed opening. A long thin tube with a balloon on the tip (known as the catheter) is inserted inside the arm artery or through the groin region.
The valve opening is made wider by inflating the balloon, which also helps the valve flaps separate. By deflating the balloon, the catheter and balloon are taken out. A second valvuloplasty or cardiac operation, often valve repair or valve replacement, may be advised if the valve opens up again after some time.
Let us know more about the procedure, its types and the need for valvuloplasty.
Table Of Contents
- What Is Balloon Valvuloplasty?
- What Are The Types Of Balloon Valvuloplasty?
- Why Do You Need Valvuloplasty?
- What Is The Difference Between Valvuloplasty And Valvotomy?
- The Valvuloplasty Procedure
- What Next After A Balloon Valvuloplasty?
- The Expert Advice
- The Final Say
What Is Balloon Valvuloplasty?
A balloon valvuloplasty is a surgical procedure executed to open a heart valve. Balloon valvuloplasty is also called Dilation or Balloon valvotomy. The blood flow between the upper and lower chambers of the heart, as well as the blood flow out of the heart, are regulated by heart valves, which act as gates.
A catheter is inserted into a blood vessel during this procedure. The professional medical inserts the tube into the patient’s heart through that blood artery. This operation aims to increase the valve opening to enhance blood flow and valve performance. The heart valves may not function correctly if they sustain injury.
The four valves in the heart are the aortic, mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary valves. These valves are located where the four heart chambers leave one another. These valves must work properly for the heart and circulatory system to function properly to control the blood flow from one chamber to the next.
What Are The Types Of Balloon Valvuloplasty?
There are two types of balloon valvuloplasty. They are:
- Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty
Blockages of the pulmonic valve may be found in patients diagnosed with mitral valve stenosis and high-risk aortic stenosis. With the aid of balloon catheters, patients with these problems often benefit from balloon mitral valvuloplasty.
- Aortic Balloon Valvuloplasty
This procedure is done in severe aortic stenosis patients who are in need of non-cardiac surgery. The procedure known as balloon aortic valvuloplasty, or BAV, is considered the safest and most practical.
Why Do You Need Valvuloplasty?
When a patient has one or more of the following ailments, a surgeon may advise balloon valvuloplasty:
• Mitral valve narrowing
• Severe valve narrowing
• Narrowed tricuspid
• Narrowed aortic valve
Other typical signs of heart valve damage that necessitates valvuloplasty include:
• Chest discomfort
• Breathing trouble
• Swelling in the ankles, feet, and abdomen
• Rapid weight gain
What Is The Difference Between Valvuloplasty And Valvotomy?
A balloon valvotomy and a valvuloplasty are identical procedures. Therefore, valvuloplasty is also known as balloon valvotomy.
Sometimes when healthcare professionals say “valvotomy,” they mean “surgical valvotomy.” For example, an open heart operation, a surgical valvotomy, is performed to remove the valve leaflets, tissue flaps that open and shut to regulate blood flow.
The Valvuloplasty Procedure
A valvuloplasty could be performed while you are a patient at a hospital. Procedures might change based on your health. A valvuloplasty often goes like this:
• Remove any jewellery or other objects that may interfere with the procedure. If you use either a hearing aid or dentures, you may wear them.
• Change the clothes into a hospital gown and empty your bladder before the procedure.
• A healthcare professional will start an intravenous (IV) line in your hand or arm to inject medicine or give IV fluids if needed.
• It is possible to shave off extra hair if it is present at the catheter insertion site (groyne area).
• You will be connected to an electrocardiogram (ECG) by a medical practitioner to track and record the heart’s electrical activity. Your vital signs—heart beat, blood pressure, breathing rate, and oxygen saturation level, will be monitored throughout the process.
• Multiple monitors in the room will display your vital signs, pictures of the catheter being inserted into the heart, and photos of the heart structures as your doctor injects the dye.
• Before the treatment, a sedative will be given to help you relax. However, you will probably be conscious throughout the process.
• Your pulses below the injection site will be checked and noted by a medical practitioner, who will then compare them to yours following the treatment.
• A local anaesthetic will be administered beneath the skin at the insertion location. After the local anaesthetic is given, there may be a brief period of stinging at the injection site.
• When the local anaesthetic has finished working, your doctor will place an introducer, also known as a sheath, into the blood vessel. The catheter will enter the blood artery and be advanced into the heart using this plastic tube.
• Your doctor will insert the valvuloplasty catheter into the blood artery and the heart through the sheath.
• Your doctor will insert the catheter and then inject contrast dye into the valve through the catheter to examine the region. When the contrast dye is delivered into the IV line, you can experience certain side effects. These side effects may include flushing, a metallic or salty aftertaste on the tongue, or a momentary headache. These effects often only last a short while.
• Tell your doctor if you feel any breathing issues, sweating, numbness, allergic reaction, chills, nausea or vomiting, or heart palpitations.
• On a monitor, the doctor will see the injection of the contrast dye. He or she could urge you to inhale deeply and hold your breath momentarily.
• Once the balloon is in position and inflated, you can experience light chest pain or disorientation. When the balloon is inflated and deflated, this should stop. However, you should seek immediate medical attention if you have any significant discomfort or pain, such as chest pain, jaw pain, arm pain, back pain, respiratory failure, or trouble breathing.
• Your doctor may inflate and deflate the balloon several times to open the valve.
• Your doctor will remove the catheter once the valve has been sufficiently expanded. He or she may use sutures, a closure device that employs collagen to seal the opening in the artery, or manual pressure to stop bleeding from the blood vessel to shut the catheter insertion site.
• If your doctor closes the wound with a device, a sterile dressing will be placed there. If manual pressure is used, the physician (or an assistant) will maintain pressure on the insertion site to promote clot formation. A very tight bandage will be applied to the area once the bleeding has ceased.
• Your doctor may recommend that you wait 4 to 6 hours before removing the sheath or introducer from the insertion site. This enables the blood-thinning medication’s effects to subside. During this period, you must remain flat on the ground. If you feel uncomfortable in this posture, your nurse may administer medication to help.
What Next After A Balloon Valvuloplasty?
You proceed to the recovery area following the treatment. If the catheter enters your groyne, you must wait a few hours before bending your leg. Then, depending on several conditions, you could lie in bed for two to six hours.
To remove the contrast dye from your body, you must hydrate yourself with lots of water. You will have to use a bedpan or urinal on bed rest. After a valvuloplasty, you can normally move around after a few hours. Most individuals go back home the next day. Several measures should be taken, including a proper diet and a healthy lifestyle to avoid and prevent heart diseases.
The Expert Advice
Valvuloplasty may enhance the heart’s blood flow and lessen symptoms. The valve could narrow again, though. So in the future, you could require another valvuloplasty or another type of heart surgery, including valve replacement or repair.
The Final Say
A technique called valvuloplasty is used to widen constricted heart valves. Cardiologists do a valvuloplasty by inserting a deflated balloon into the heart valve using minimally invasive methods. The valve is opened when the balloon swells.
Thanks to this therapy, your heart pumps blood more effectively because blood flow is improved. A valvuloplasty may enable you to postpone or prevent having a valve replacement.
You can also visit the cardiology department at the Bansal Hospital Bhopal. With experienced doctors and the advanced facilities in the town, it ensures you the most suitable treatment for your heart health!
- What is a balloon valvuloplasty used for?
Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac intervention to open up stenotic or stiffed heart valves (aortic or mitral) using a catheter with a balloon on the tip. It is also known as balloon valvotomy.
- What is the cost of valvuloplasty in India?
Balloon Valvuloplasty Aortic cost in India for Indian Patients is between Rs. 177000 to Rs. 236000.
- What is the success rate of balloon valvuloplasty?
Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty BPV was successful in 53 of 60 (88.3%) patients, whereas surgical valvotomy was necessary for 6 to 60 (10%). Unfortunately, one immediate death was due to the right ventricular outflow tract perforation.
- Is valvuloplasty open heart surgery?
Valvuloplasty is a minimally invasive procedure. Compared to open-heart surgery, the benefits of minimally invasive heart treatments can include faster recovery.
About Bansal Hospital
Bansal Hospital is a multispeciality hospital and is one of the leading, reputable and reliable healthcare providers trusted by patients and their families across the region. It has all the major departments, including cardiology, neurology, oncology, orthopaedics, gastroenterology, urology, and more. The hospital is equipped with state-of-the-art facilities and technology and has a team of highly qualified and experienced doctors and medical staff who provide round-the-clock care to the patient.
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