5 Rare Eye Diseases That Cause Blindness – Bansal Hospital

5 Rare Eye Diseases That Cause Blindness

5 Rare Eye Diseases That Cause Blindness

Blindness is one of the non-communicable diseases where vision loss occurs. The vision loss may be partial or complete. Various eye diseases can cause blindness. They affect the retina, the part of the eye responsible for vision, and can range from mild impairment to total vision loss.

In this blog, we will discuss some of the most common eye diseases that cause blindness and its causes. 

Table Of Contents 

  1. What Is Eye Disease? 
  2. 5 Rare Eye Diseases That Cause Blindness 
  3. Can Eye Disease Be Inherited? 
  4. The Final Say 

What Is Eye Disease? 

Eye disease is any disease or disorder affecting the human eye. Several conditions can cause it, and the most common causes of blindness in affluent countries are herpes simplex virus (HSV), retinal degeneration, cataract and diabetic retinopathy. 

These conditions can lead to vision loss due to problems with the eye’s optic nerve or the part of the retina that receives images. 

5 Rare Eye Diseases That Cause Blindness 

There are several conditions that can cause blindness. We have listed a few of them here! 

1. Retinitis Pigmentosa 

Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of inherited eye conditions that cause retinal degeneration and vision loss. The condition is characterised by abnormal retinal macrophages, leading to the loss of retinal tissue and vision.

Symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa may include decreased side vision, difficulty seeing in low light, and difficulty adjusting to dark environments. 

Treatment options for retinitis pigmentosa are limited but may include genetic counselling and vision rehabilitation. Retinoblastoma is cancer caused by a genetic mutation associated with retinitis pigmentosa.

 It can cause vision loss before symptoms appear and frequently results in blindness. 

2. Age-Related Macular Degeneration 

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), an eye disease, is the leading cause of vision loss in 65 years and above. It is an eye disorder associated with ageing and can result in loss of central vision due to blood- vessels growing under the macula, causing vision loss.

AMD affects people of all ages, but symptoms are more prominent in those older than 55. There are two primary types of AMD.  

  • Wet Macular Degeneration

It occurs due to abnormal blood vessels forming beneath the macula, leading to leakage of blood and fluid from the eye, which can cause vision loss.  

  • Dry Macular Degeneration

It is a degenerative condition that leads to the gradual loss of central vision over time as part of the ageing process.

Besides age factors such as smoking, high body weight and family history of macular degeneration, there are no known risk factors for AMD. However, early detection and treatment can help slow vision loss and prevent permanent damage. 

Therefore, if you notice a minor change in your vision, consult a healthcare provider immediately.

3. Diabetic Retinopathy 

Diabetic retinopathy is a common eye disease associated with diabetes, a chronic condition characterised by high blood sugar levels. It is characterised by damage to the retina’s blood vessels, which is necessary for good vision. 

There are two forms of diabetic retinopathy- non-proliferative and proliferative- that can cause damage to tiny blood vessels at the back of the eyes. 

Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy causes slight retina swelling and may cause blurred vision, while proliferative diabetic retinopathy causes permanent vision loss and can cause blindness if not treated quickly.

Anyone with diabetes who develops diabetic retinopathy should seek immediate medical attention. Early treatment with laser surgery or medications may prevent vision loss and improve vision for patients with diabetic retinopathy.

You Can Also Read:  Laser Eye Surgery: Everything You Need To Know 

4. Glaucoma 

Glaucoma is an eye condition that causes vision loss due to higher-than-normal eye pressure. This can cause blindness if left untreated. It is usually caused by increased fluid pressure inside the eye, leading to damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

There are two main types of glaucoma: 

  • Open-Angle Glaucoma

It causes gradual vision loss due to eye optic nerve damage. After many years of this type of glaucoma, vision loss becomes permanent.

  • Closed-Angle Glaucoma  

It causes sudden vision loss due to damage to the eyelid vessels. This type of glaucoma is more severe and requires prompt medical attention.

Glaucoma treatments include corticosteroids, beta-blockers, and ophthalmic (eye) drops designed to reduce eye pressure and medication for visual impairment, such as cataract surgery or laser treatment.

In many cases, a diagnosis of glaucoma can be made based on visual field tests or by viewing a biopsy from the optic nerve or retina taken during an eye exam.

5. Cataract

A cataract is a condition in which the eye’s lens becomes cloudy, causing vision loss. A cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting over 133 million people. The number of cataract-related blindness cases is projected to grow to 30.1 million by 2020.

A cataract is most commonly caused by age-related degeneration of the eye’s lens, but it can also occur due to eye injury or other causes. 

In cataract surgery, the cataract is removed and replaced with an artificial lens. This procedure can restore vision and save vision-related functions if done early enough.

Can Eye Disease Be Inherited? 

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that destroy vision by damaging the optic nerve. It occurs with normal eye pressure, so increasing pressure can cause the condition to become worse. 

High glucose levels in the body can also lead to eye disease by causing deposits to build up in the eyes’ lenses. In addition, glaucoma has a strong genetic component, and people with family members with the disease are at higher risk of developing it themselves.

Proper eye care is the best way to prevent and treat glaucoma, including regular checkups and vision-related treatments such as prescribed eye drops, laser therapy, or surgery if needed. In cases where vision loss has already occurred, treatment options include vitreous lens replacement surgery and visual rehabilitation therapy.

The Final Say 

Eye diseases can cause vision loss, blurred vision, eye fatigue, and sensitivity to light. They can also result in blindness if left untreated. The most common eye diseases are age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), glaucoma, cataract, and amblyopia. 

They are all preventable through early detection and treatment. You should see an eye health professional if you have an eye condition or disease. Bansal Hospital Bhopal has the best opthanlogy department. You may visit us for regular eye checkups for any medical emergency. 

Remember, it is essential to protect your vision by using eye protection such as eyeglasses and sunglasses when outdoors, avoiding injury to your eye, and seeking medical attention quickly if any signs of eye disease appear.

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