What Causes Hypotension or Low Blood Pressure? - Bansal Hospital

What causes hypotension or low blood pressure?


Having high or low blood pressure is a common problem. Low blood pressure usually happens with age or dehydration. Many people today feel the effects of low blood pressure. In order to maintain or control it, it is significant to know the causes, symptoms, and treatment. 

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury. Normal blood pressure reads 120/80 whereas low blood pressure readings measure at lower than 90 mm Hg for the top systolic and 60 mm Hg for the bottom diastolic. 

Low blood pressure can cause dizziness or fainting but in very rare instances is life-threatening.  

Symptoms of Low Blood pressure

  • Blurred vision
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Nausea

Extreme low blood pressure or hypotension may lead to shock for which symptoms may include-

  • Confusion 
  • Cold Skin
  • Pale skin
  • Rapid breathing
  • Weak or rapid pulse

Causes of low blood pressure

Blood pressure depends upon the amount of blood the heart pumps and the difficulty in blood flow to the arteries.  Systolic pressure is the first reading of the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats whereas diastolic pressure refers to the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests. 

Blood pressure may vary depending on the: 

  • Position of the body
  • Breathing
  • Medications
  • The food and drink you have
  • Stress 
  • And time

BP is lowest at night and raises rapidly upon waking. 

Certain conditions that cause low blood pressure are: 


Blood pressure may rapidly change during pregnancy as blood vessels expand. At 24 weeks of pregnancy, hypotension is common. 


A heart attack, heart failure, bradycardia, and heart valve disease can cause hypotension.

Endocrine disorders-

Hormone-related conditions such as thyroid, Addison’s disease, and diabetes can cause low blood pressure. 


If there isn’t enough water in the body, the amount of blood in the body decreases leading to a drop in blood pressure. 

Losing blood-

Losing blood due to an injury or internal bleeding also results in low blood pressure. 


Severe infection in the bloodstream can cause blood pressure to drop, resulting in septic shock which could be fatal. 


Severe allergic reactions can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure. 

Lack of nutrients- 

Lack of vitamin B12 or iron can refrain from producing enough RBCs leading to anemia which further leads to hypotension. 

Risk factors of low blood pressure


Hypotension is common in people over the age of 65 on standing or after eating food. Meditated low blood pressure affects children. 


Some medications can cause blood pressure to drop. 


Certain diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, and heart conditions may lead to a drop in blood pressure. 

Treatment that can be performed individually

  • Drinking water often
  • Refraining from drinking alcohol as it causes dehydration
  • Eating high-sodium foods
  • Having high-energy drinks 
  • Moving legs to streamline blood flow

Opting to notice blood pressure every year can help you keep a check. If you feel dizziness or some other symptoms it can be due to various other conditions and reasons but if you see a drop in your blood pressure often, consult your nearby doctors. 

Bansal Hospitals has amazing credible doctors who can help you keep a check on your blood pressure and help identify an underlying condition if exists. 

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